P.O BOX 65519, Ras Al Khor Industrial Area 1, Dubai, U.A.E
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Sprinkler systems are intended to either control the fire or to suppress the fire. The fire is not extinguished before the burning materials are exhausted or manually extinguished by fire fighters. Consulting or Designing engineers select different types of installations depending on the building type and the usage of the building. Fire sprinkler systems use water to suppress, and in best case scenario to extinguish, fires in buildings. Piped systems are used to distribute the media throughout the building to wherever the fire is present. Water is relatively cheap and typically available in adequate amounts, and very useful to extinguish fire, since water-droplets rapidly absorb heat and converts it to steam, which displaces the air and suffocates the fire.
Sprinklers can be made in various designs to perform different spray patterns, time of response, pressure, droplet size etc.Fire sprinkler installations must comply with fire protection standards, which there are legislative and mandatory provisions to indicate requirements for planning, installation and maintenance of fire protection systems. Fire protection standards can be written by independent organizations, insurance associations or government authorities to minimize the possibility and effects of fires.
By the nature of the device, an emergency light is designed to come on when the power goes out. Every model, therefore, requires some sort of a battery or generator system that could provide electricity to the lights during a blackout. The earliest models were incandescent light bulbs which could dimly light an area during a blackout and perhaps provide enough light to solve the power problem or evacuate the building. It was quickly realized, however, that a more focused, brighter, and longer-lasting light was needed. The latest emergency floodlight provides a high-lumen, wide-coverage light that can illuminate an area quite well. Some lights are halogen, and provide a light source and intensity similar to that of an automobile headlight.
Early battery backup systems were huge, dwarfing the size of the lights for which they provided power. The systems normally used lead acid batteries to store a full 120-volt charge. For comparison, an automobile uses a single lead acid battery as part of the ignition system. Simple transistor or relay technology was used to switch on the lights and battery supply in the event of a power failure. The size of these units, as well as the weight and cost, made them relatively rare installations. As technology developed further, the voltage requirements for lights dropped, and subsequently the size of the batteries was reduced as well. Latest lights are only as large as the bulbs themselves – the battery fits quite well in the base of the fixture. Emergency lighting is installed in virtually every commercial and high occupancy residential building. The lights consist of one or more incandescent bulbs or one or more clusters of high-intensity light-emitting diodes (LED). The emergency lighting heads are usually either PAR 36 sealed beams or wedge base lamps. All units have some sort of a device to focus and intensify the light they produce. This can either be in the form of a plastic cover over the fixture, or a reflector placed behind the light source. Most individual light sources can be rotated and aimed for where light is needed most in an emergency, such as toward fire exits. Modern fixtures usually have a test button of some sort which temporarily overrides the unit and causes it to switch on the lights and operate from battery power even if the main power is still on. Modern systems are operated with relatively low voltage, usually from 6-12 volts. This both reduces the size of the batteries required and reduces the load on the circuit to which the emergency light is wired.
A fire alarm system has a number of devices working together to detect and warn people through visual and audio appliances when smoke, fire, carbon monoxide or other emergencies are present. These alarms may be activated automatically from smoke detectors, and heat detectors or may also be activated via manual fire alarm activation devices such as manual call points or pull stations. Alarms can be either motorized bells or wall mountable sounders or horns. They can also be speaker strobes which sound an alarm, followed by a voice evacuation message which warns people inside the building not to use the elevators.
Fire alarm sounders can be set to certain frequencies and different tones including low, medium and high, depending on the country and manufacturer of the device.Most fire alarm systems in Europe sound like a siren with alternating frequencies. Fire alarm sounders in the United States and Canada can be either continuous or set to different codes such as Code 3. Fire alarm warning devices can also be set to different volume levels. Smaller buildings may have the alarm set to a lower volume and larger buildings may have alarms set to a higher level.
A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fire, such as one which has reached the ceiling, endangers the user (i.e., no escape route, smoke, explosion hazard, etc.), or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire department. Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent which can be discharged to extinguish a fire. Fire extinguishers manufactured with non-cylindrical pressure vessels also exist, but are less common. Fire extinguishers in all buildings other than houses are generally required to be serviced and inspected by a fire protection service company at least annually.
Some jurisdictions require more frequent service for fire extinguishers. The service places a tag on the extinguisher to indicate the type of service performed (annual inspection, recharge, and new fire extinguisher). There are two main types of fire extinguishers: stored-pressure and cartridge-operated. In stored pressure units, the expellant is stored in the same chamber as the firefighting agent itself. Depending on the agent used, different propellants are used. With dry chemical extinguishers, nitrogen is typically used; water and foam extinguishers typically use air. Stored pressure fire extinguishers are the most common type. Cartridge-operated extinguishers contain the expellant gas in a separate cartridge that is punctured prior to discharge, exposing the propellant to the extinguishing agent. This type is not as common, used primarily in areas such as industrial facilities, where they receive higher-than-average use. They have the advantage of simple and prompt recharge, allowing an operator to discharge the extinguisher, recharge it, and return to the fire in a reasonable amount of time. Unlike stored pressure types, these extinguishers use compressed carbon dioxide instead of nitrogen, although nitrogen cartridges are used on low temperature (-60 rated) models. Cartridge operated extinguishers are available in dry chemical and dry powder types in the U.S. and in water, wetting agent, foam, dry chemical (classes ABC and B.C.), and dry powder (class D) types in the rest of the world. Wheeled fire extinguisher and a sign inside a parking lot Fire extinguishers are further divided into handheld and cart-mounted (also called wheeled extinguishers). Handheld extinguishers weigh from 0.5 to 14 kilograms (1.1 to 30.9 lb), and are hence, easily portable by hand. Cart-mounted units typically weigh more than 23 kilograms (51 lb). These wheeled models are most commonly found at construction sites, airport runways, heliports, as well as docks and marinas.
Wet pipe sprinkler systems are the most common system. The pipes are filled with water under pressure and are only installed in frost resistant building areas. Since they are simple – they are also very reliable.
Dry pipe systems are installed in spaces, where the ambient temperature may be cold enough to freeze the water in a wet pipe system – making a wet pipe system inoperable. Dry pipe systems are typically used in refrigerated coolers, car parking area and in unheated buildings or water sensitive areas, since dry pipe systems do not leak water.
Deluge systems are systems where all sprinklers connected are open. These sprinklers have no sensing element (glass bulb). Deluge systems are used in areas where there is a concern for a rapid fire spread. The open sprinklers will distribute water over the entire area.
Hoses range from 1 to 4 inches in diameter. Four-inch hoses are used to connect the truck to the fire hydrant. Mid-range hoses are double-jacket hoses that have two layers of cotton over a rubber interior to carry the water. This hose is designed to expand but prevents a high leakage. Some 1-inch hoses are used in brush fires that are one-layered but are lighter. They don’t carry as much water pressure and leak more, but this is a trade-off necessary when dragging hoses up into mountains for brush fires.
P.O BOX 65519, Ras Al Khor Industrial Area 1, Dubai, U.A.E
Tel: +971 4 331 2277
Fax: +971 4 331 1826
MOB: +971 - 52 96 11 316
55 23 32 479, 52 9 786 346
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